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The Not-Too-Distant Future Of Television

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The business and consumption of television as we know it is going to change forever. From digital living rooms to newsrooms, stay tuned for a personalized, multi-screen experience.

We live in a world of constant disruption. Technological advancements have turned everything on its head. Companies like Uber, Airbnb, YouTube and Facebook have shaken the incumbents in their respective industry, paving the way for new business models that value efficiency and instant gratification. Fintechs are the next group of relatively new startups to disrupt one of the world’s largest sectors – banking and finance. And while every industry in the world is impacted by these technological enhancements and changes in consumption, media has probably changed the most.

Before we get into the changes impacting the evolution of television news, it’s important to take stock of the market. In sub-Saharan Africa, the pay-TV landscape is dominated by DStv. Hybrid services that bundle over-the-top (OTT; content delivered over the internet) services with digital terrestrial and IP TV like Kwese and Wananchi Groups’ Zuku are smaller in terms of subscribers, but are making inroads across the continent.

The deadline for the switch-over to Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) has passed in most markets in Africa, but remains an opportunity for growth and channel development. Netflix and Amazon Prime have been globally available since 2016 and are growing subscriber numbers in emerging markets, competing directly with pay-TV providers, while Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat are investing in scripted short-form programming. With the abundance of choice, for both free and paid content, the share of screen-time is getting increasingly more fragmented.

READ MORE: MultiChoice, Africa’s Biggest TV Operator, To Be Listed By Naspers, Africa’s Largest Public Company

PwC, a professional services firm, publishes a report, Entertainment and Media Outlook: An African Perspective, each year. The report does a good job of measuring the pulse of media across the continent. PwC predicts that the total TV market in South Africa, which is the largest TV market on the continent, is going to exhibit reasonably strong growth. They predict that the pay-TV sector will add 1.5 million households by 2022, contrary to the decline in pay-TV viewing predicted by media pundits as a result of the availability of OTT alternatives like Netflix in South Africa. TV advertising remains an important part of the overall TV market, but accounts for just under a quarter of the sector’s total revenue.

In West Africa, Nigeria’s TV market grew year over year by 17.1%, despite a challenging economic climate. Again, pay-TV dominates revenues in the sector, commanding 75% of total revenues while advertising accounts for just 19%. Poor broadband penetration and availability has delayed the onset of the internet video segment, extending the life of linear TV in Nigeria.

How is content creation changing?
Industry leaders like Netflix have brought in data analytics for better content creation and acquisition. The Economist published a cover story on Netflixonomics in June where it reported Netflix has identified some 2,000 “taste clusters” by watching its watchers. An analysis of how well a program will reach, draw and retain customers in specific clusters lets Netflix calculate what sort of acquisition costs can be justified for it. Historically, the calculus of whether a show or film is worth making was based on relatively subjective criteria, and, on the intuition of people experienced in content creation. Data will become increasingly important in determining what to produce.
Advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning are going to play an important role in augmenting the abilities of content producers, particularly journalists. AI-driven computer vision tools, speech recognition and natural language processing, when combined with a real-time content feed can help a content producer with creating enhanced visualization and representations of data, fact-checking, and guest identification cataloguing.

AI is enhancing the newsroom in many other ways. From streamlining media workflows to automating mundane tasks, enabling journalists to focus on what they do best – reporting. AI is also being used to improve turnaround times by allowing content creators to crunching more data. Research can be performed much faster, information can be correlated quickly and efficiently. Facebook is using AI to detect word patterns that may indicate a fake news story.

One of the largest cost components within a television news station was the cost of connectivity. Historically, connectivity for a TV channel was largely based on expensive satellites. Reliability was also an issue; bad weather could impact the quality of the signal. Portable cellular backpack solutions like LiveU, which uses the internet through mobile cellular networks, bound with other networks, like wireless internet have rendered legacy satellite uplink systems redundant and obsolete. Robotic cameras used within news studios take up less space and don’t require dedicated personnel to operate them. Integrated hardware solutions that incorporate all the elements of live TV in a single box have reduced the cost to operate a TV channel.

What are the transmission protocols of the future going to look like?
How people receive content is becoming just as important. IP-delivered content opens new doors in how advertisers can target consumers. As TV becomes more digitalized and smarter, the line between TV and OTT is blurring. Advertisers and ad agencies will eventually merge their TV ad digital planning and measurement.
It’s no secret that video on demand and other internet video services lag pay-TV across Africa. This is largely due to the availability and affordability of broadband internet. While this remains a challenge in the short-to-medium term, providers of telecommunication services are entering the content distribution space.

How will consumption patterns change in the future?
We’ve covered how data informs decisions around content production. Data is also used in the consumption side of the equation, particularly when it comes to delivering personalized content recommendations. Netflix does this particularly well with its content recommendation algorithms. This becomes important when dealing with massive amounts of content, like for example, user-generated content from social media sites. On any given day, over a billion hours of video are watched on YouTube. 70% of this content is recommended by YouTube’s algorithms. Going down the rabbit hole of YouTube is something most of us are familiar with; your well-intentioned first click to a video someone sent you leads to a three-hour binge from videos about political conspiracy theories to a clip on the antics of various house cats.

The recommendations are personalized, and they’re the first thing you see when you sign onto the site or YouTube app. They help you find the needle in the haystack of the millions of videos on YouTube that you actually want to watch.

The shift to second screen viewing has already taken place, with viewers often multi-tasking, watching Netflix and engaging with their friends on social media. There has been a lot of buzz around augmented reality and virtual reality. If you look past the gimmickry and hype, there hasn’t been a tectonic shift with either technology.
Wherever the future of television takes us, you cannot understate the importance of quality content, whether user-generated or scripted, free, paid or ad-supported. Almost all content will move towards a multi-screen environment with a highly personalized stream of content, rendering channels obsolete. The television will be just one of the many screens available to audiences. News production will become more efficient to produce, insightful when consumed and ubiquitous in its availability.

– The writer is the Managing Director of CMA Investment Holdings.

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‘AI Is A Powerful Tool’

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Research forecasts that by 2025, machines will perform more current work tasks than humans. Murat Sonmez, member of the managing board, and Head of the Centre for the WEF Fourth Industrial Revolution Network, expands on the role humans might play.


The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is at the center of the current economic frontier. In reality, is Africa prepared for such changes?

Moving quickly and being agile are key principles of success in the 4IR. Any country can succeed if they take on this mindset. A few years ago, Rwanda saw the opportunities drones, a 4IR technology, brought to their country.

They helped save over 800 lives by delivering blood to remote villages. To scale this, the government worked with the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) drones’ team to create the world’s first agile airspace regulation. Now, we see countries in Africa and around the world looking to the Rwandan model.

READ MORE | 5 Ways Tech Can Revolutionize Education

What feasible solutions can  artificial intelligence (AI) offer in terms of forecasting natural disasters, droughts food security on the African continent?

AI can help predict diseases, increase agriculture yields and help first responders. It is a powerful tool for governments and businesses, but it needs a lot of data to be effective.

For AI to be all that it can be, countries and companies need to work together to build frameworks for better management and protection of our data and ensure that it is shared and not stored in silos. Data is the oxygen of the (4IR). If countries do not leverage data and have their policies in place, they will be left behind.

There is a growing concern that the 4IR will strip people of jobs, of which there is already a shortage. How true is this?

The world is going through a workplace revolution that will bring a seismic shift in the way humans work alongside machines and algorithms.

Latest research from the WEF forecasts that by 2025, machines will perform more current work tasks than humans, compared to 71% being performed by humans today.

READ MORE | Roadmap For African Startups

The rapid evolution of machines and algorithms in the workplace could create 133 million new roles in place of 75 million that will be displaced between now and 2022.

Consumers have real concerns around the potential harm technology can cause in areas such as privacy, misinformation, surveillance, job loss, environmental damage and increased inequality. What ethical precautions are being considered in the robotics space?

Now more than ever, it is important to incorporate ethics into the design, deployment and use of emerging technology. Innovating in the 4IR requires addressing concerns around privacy and data ownership, while attracting the skills and forward-looking thinkers of the future.

There are big challenges and bigger opportunities ahead. We have seen many companies and countries create ethical and human rights-based frameworks. What’s important is they are co-designed with members of both communities along with academia, civil society and start-ups.

A multi-stakeholder approach will result in a more holistic set of guidelines and principles that can be adopted in many different industries and geographies.

READ MORE | It’s Time For Africa’s Gazelles To Shine

What changes need to take place for the African continent to be on par with global developments, and are there tangible goals set?

The 4IR provides governments the opportunity to be global leaders in shaping the next 20 to 30 years of science and technology. It is important they create an environment where companies can innovate.

The other tenet is to be open to working across borders and learning from each other. The global health industry has access to mountains of data on rare diseases, but it is trapped within countries and sometimes even within the hospital walls.

If we can build trust and find innovative ways to share the data while protecting privacy, we can employ tools like AI to help us cure disease faster. Countries and companies need to have the right governance frameworks and mechanisms in place for these breakthroughs to happen. It is possible to do these things now, but we need to work together to make it happen.

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Businesses At The Heart Of A Greener Future

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With every day that passes by it becomes more apparent that the Earth is deteriorating and time is running out to save it. Scientists have estimated that we have less than a decade to save the planet before it is irreversibly damaged, mainly due to climate change.

Businesses claim the largest percentage of global emissions (at approximately 70% since 1988, according to The Guardian) which is an alarming statistic, especially in a time when the planet’s well-being is being compromised.

Many large business corporations are hastily coming on board with operating sustainably by transforming their practices and placing business ethics at the forefront of their priorities.

READ MORE | The Most Sustainable Companies In 2019

Last week, a round table discussion was held at the Fairlawns Boutique Hotel, Sandton hosted by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) – the world’s largest sustainability consulting firm. Their aim was to discuss how imperative it is for African businesses to get on board with sustainability.

“We have been talking about how to be sustainable for a long time but now it is time for us to do sustainability,” says Thapelo Letete, Technical Director of ERM.

An engaging and thought-provoking panel discussion ensued with representatives from ERM and mining companies, Anglo American and Gold Fields. They emphasized the importance of sustainability being recognized by investors, especially in mining and oil companies that rely solely on Earth’s natural resources.

Civil society has a colossal role to play in ensuring the sustainability of businesses. Due to the law of supply and demand in production, consumers are being urged to be mindful of their buying habits and to make sustainable decisions. These are as simple as minimizing the utilization of plastic straws by replacing them with metal or paper straws and reusable shopping bags and by recycling selected items.

READ MORE | Challenging The Gender Divide

“Research suggests that socially and environmentally responsible practices have the potential to garner more positive consumer perceptions of (businesses), as well as increases in profitability,” according to an entry in Sage Journals published in May.

The advancement of science, artificial intelligence and the rapid growth of the technological industry make it an undeniable fact that the Fourth Industrial Revolution is underway. Many businesses across the globe seem to be well prepared for this change. However, businesses in Africa seem to be vulnerable. 

“It is difficult to say that all businesses in Africa are prepared for it. It is not a country specific thing but it does vary across corporations. There will be businesses that are well prepared and businesses that are not so well prepared,” says Keryn James, CEO of ERM.

A large part of sustainability also relies on empowerment and equality. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of female-owned businesses who contribute a large amount of money towards their respective countries’ GDPs. However, most of these businesses struggle with the issue of scaling.

“Women sometimes underestimate their ability and they don’t necessarily  have the confidence that they should have about the value that their businesses present. Women often take less risks than men,” says James.

“The issue of scaling is one that we see globally. One of the issues are access to funding to support in the investment and growth of their businesses.”

READ MORE | Mastercard: Diligent About Digital In Africa

Going forward, the availability of mentorship programmes and skills development opportunities for women, especially black women in business should be encouraged.

According to a study done by the UN Women’s organization, an average of 3 out of 7 women score higher in performance when they are placed in senior managerial positions. Additionally, if more women work, the more countries can exponentially maximise their economic growth.

Women will be empowered when given the correct skills and opportunities to be able to run their own businesses independently which would ultimately lead to the scaling of female-owned businesses in Africa and sustainable development.

The Nedbank Capital Sustainable Business Awards aim to recognize the efforts of businesses that operate sustainably and to encourage other corporations who intend to adopt more sustainable strategies into their practices. Initiatives such as these prove that business value also depends on how sustainable they are.

It is clear that the prioritization of sustainability and accountability in businesses is the only way forward in the midst of this global crisis. With a combination of will and the rigorous work that African businesses have put into sustainability initiatives and strategies, it is easier to be optimistic about our planet’s wellbeing.

-Buhle Ntusi

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Ex-Google Staffer Says After Split With Chief Legal Officer David Drummond: ‘Hell Does Not Begin To Capture My Life’

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Former Google employee Jennifer Blakely has written a scathing blog post with allegations about how her affair with chief legal officer David Drummond unfolded.


A former member of Google’s legal team who says she had a child with the company’s chief legal officer, David Drummond, has written a scathing blog post about the way that their relationship unfolded within the search engine giant, including that he issued “terrifying threats” to take custody of their child after initially refusing to pay child support.

In a Medium post, Jennifer Blakely says that she was inspired to detail her experience after an explosive New York Times story last fall put a spotlight on how the company shielded top executives from harassment claims and sparked massive employee protests.

“Looking back, I see how standards that I was willing to indulge early on became institutionalized behavior as Google’s world prominence grew and its executives grew more powerful,” Blakely writes.

READ MORE | Google, Facebook, Twitter Fail To Live Up To Fake News Pledge

“Women that I worked with at Google who have spoken to me since the New York Times article have told me how offended they were by the blatant womanizing and philandering that became common practice among some (but certainly not all) executives, starting at the very top.” 

While her relationship with the married Drummond was included in the Times story and first reported byThe Information in November 2017, this is the first time Blakely has written about the experience herself.

Drummond is one of several current and former Google executives who has reportedly had relationships with employees or extramarital affairs, including Eric Schmidt, Sergey Brin, and Andy Rubin.

READ MORE | Calling Out Sexual Harassment

Blakely alleges that after their relationship ended, Drummond had another relationship with a subordinate, which is against Google’s workplace policy. He is still employed by Google and made more than $47 million last year. 

Blakely says that she started working in Google’s legal department under Drummond in 2001 and that after he told her that he was estranged from his wife, they began a relationship in 2004. She says the two had a child together in 2007 and that Google’s human resources department then told her that one of them had to leave the department.

She moved to sales, an area where she had no experience, and subsequently struggled with her work. Blakely alleges that after she ultimately left the company at Drummond’s urging in 2008, but that while they were living together in Palo Alto, he broke off their relationship via text message.

“‘Hell’ does not begin to capture my life since that day,” she writes. “I’ve spent the last 11 years taking on one of the most powerful, ruthless lawyers in the world. From that fateful night forward, David did things exclusively on his terms.” 

She alleges that Drummond initially refused to see their son or pay child support, and then fought against her in a custody battle. While she says they ultimately reached a settlement and he began paying child support, she writes that “months or years” would go by when he wouldn’t see their son. In 2014, Drummond allegedly showed her an article about Eric Schmidt’s reported history of extramarital affairs during an argument, implying that the executive’s position granted him impunity.

READ MORE | Young women in Soweto, South Africa, say healthy living is hard. Here’s why

“His ‘personal life’ (which apparently didn’t include his son) was off limits and since I was no longer his ‘personal life’ it was time for me to shut up, fall in line and stop bothering him with the nuisances or demands of raising a child,” Blakely writes.

Blakely’s story is the latest in a string of public posts from former Google employees highlighting issues with the company’s culture and policies (or their lack of enforcement).

One of the women who helped organize last fall’s protests, Claire Stapelton, recently wrote about her experience with retaliation, another employee detailed the disappointing way the company’s human resources department dealt with her harassment reports, and former senior engineer Liz Fong-Jones posted about “grave concerns” with the company’s decision making in general.

The outspokenness of Google employees exemplifies — and has helped spur — a broader activism in the tech sector that has seen workers speaking out against their employer’s internal policies and business decisions.

Blakely’s post also taps into the larger #MeToo movement which has drawn attention to sexual harassment and abuse in the workplace across industries.

“Until truth is willing to speak to power and is heard, there’s not going to be the sea change necessary to bring equality to the workplace,” she writes.

Neither Google nor Drummond immediately responded to a request for comment. 

This story is developing.

-Jillian D’Onfro; Forbes

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