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Moments Before An Air Crash

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In a metal tube 40,000 feet above the ground, anything can go horribly wrong. A survivor recounts the moments before her plane crashed, and pilots tell us why we needn’t be as apprehensive today. 

This is your captain speaking, we are about to land,” said the voice on the intercom, as the passengers fastened seat belts.

The plane was descending calmly when it suddenly began to shake – vigorously.

A woman started shrieking.

Shock and horror all around.

Two students held hands in prayer.

In minutes – but what seemed like an eternity – the aircraft crashed into the ground, bursting into flames, killing 108 passengers.

Kechi Okwuchi, one of the two students who prayed, lived to tell the tale.

She was also one of only two survivors.

Thirteen years on, her scars, external and internal, run deep.

On December 10, 2005, 16-year-old Okwuchi, from Imo State in Nigeria, was heading home for Christmas with her school mates.

She was traveling on Sosoliso Airlines Flight 1145 from Abuja to Port Harcourt.

“I remember just being in shock at what was going on and I couldn’t quite grasp that this was reality. You only see these kind of things in the movies. You never actually are involved in it. It is just surreal,” she recounts to FORBES AFRICA.

“I remember the plane was late and when we all boarded, everything was normal.”

Okwuchi was in an aisle seat next to one of her friends.

“It wasn’t until about 15-20 minutes before we landed that things started to get a little crazy and the turbulence kind of got out of hand,” she says.

“People started panicking. I remember a lady in the back who screamed and that was what got everyone in chaos and screaming. The last thing I remember was hearing these metal scrapping sounds, whose origins I didn’t know. It was just this loud sound in my head.”

The plane had crashed.

“My next memory after that was seeing my hand raised up in front of me like I was lying and I could see my skin hanging off my arm. And I was looking at my hand back and forth…My skin was hanging,” she says of the aftermath.

Five weeks later, Okwuchi opened her eyes again for the first time since the crash. She was now at the Netcare Milpark Hospital in Johannesburg, being treated for third degree burns that scarred her entire body.

Kechi Okwuchi, Air crash survivor. Photo provided

She was told none of her school mates had survived.

“Prior to that time, I thought that I if I was alive, everyone else was alive,” says Okwuchi.

“I just remember feeling shock and my friends’ faces were flashing before my eyes like someone flipping a scrap book in front of me…I was in that state of shock, depression and denial for about two-three days, just crying and crying.

“No one could comfort me from the pit of depression I was in,” she says.

To date, Okwuchi has undergone more than 100 surgeries – she has almost lost count.

At the time of the interview with FORBES AFRICA, she had just undergone yet another surgery in Los Angeles.

Okwuchi’s life is a miracle.

Despite the experience, she says she is not afraid of flying. She is a frequent flyer now pursuing a busy career.

She is studying for an MBA degree at the University of St. Thomas in Houston, Texas.

She is also a vocalist, and has released her first single after being a finalist on the 12th season of America’s Got Talent last year.

Auditioning in front of thousands, including celebrities Simon Cowell, Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum, she fearlessly performed a rendition of Ed Sheeran’s Thinking Out Loud after sharing her life story.

She is also now a motivational speaker and has featured in TED Talks.

Kechi Okwuchi. Photo provided

The same decade as Okwuchi’s crash – the 2000s – Nigeria had experienced five major and fatal plane crashes. Experts suggested they were due to engine failure, bad weather, poor airport design or dysfunctional runway lighting.

Since then, the number of airplane accidents have thankfully declined.

On a continental level, a quick Google search reveals 23 headline-grabbing plane crashes in Africa in the first decade of this century.

Post 2010, there were five, the deadliest being the Algerian Air Force Il-76 crash as recently as April 11, 2018, when all 257 people on board were killed.

One of the reasons airplane accidents have come down today is thanks to the advancement of aviation technology. And thanks to phone cameras and social media, we also have better insight into what happens moments before an air accident.

However, to date, no technology has been able to solve one of the planet’s biggest unsolved mysteries – the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014 with 239 people on board.

Flying solo

The same year as the Sosoliso plane crash, thousands of kilometers from Nigeria, trainee pilot Noni Radebe was doing her first ‘night test’ in South Africa.

In the pitch-black sky, the 19-year-old was all by herself in the small plane hovering over Port Alfred in the Eastern Cape.

In the middle of the flight, the engines began to fail. Radebe felt unusual vibrations. Some plane components simply stopped working.

Panic and shock consumed her.

The plane began to lose altitude and flew over a dense forest.

Radebe couldn’t see anything and her plane started losing power. Her only hope was to try and somehow land it on any empty stretch of land.

“I had only been taught to respond to [such a situation] in daylight,” she says recalling what she thought would have been the end of her career – and her life.

In the end, with great trepidation, she somehow managed to land the plane on the runway of her training school.

She passed her pilot’s test and went on to become one of South Africa’s pioneering female pilots. Redebe has been flying commercial planes for the last 13 years.

Noni Radebe. Photo provided

She currently flies her dream plane, a Boeing 737 MAX 8 for Comair, which has advanced technological systems.

 “We have reached a point where you can basically land when you cannot see the ground. That’s how good the technology has become,” she tells FORBES AFRICA.

She no longer panics in an emergency. She remains calm and reacts quickly to any potential danger in the air.

She finds flying one of the most enjoyable experiences on earth.

“By the time you actually line up on that runway and are ready to take off, it feels like you’ve been orchestrating this humongous stage play,” she says.

Radebe hopes to train young pilots to be better equipped for situations like the one she encountered during her first flight alone.

READ MORE: Heroes In The Sky

‘AT LEAST 500,000 PILOTS OVER THE NEXT 20 YEARS’

In Germiston, a small city in the East Rand region of Gauteng in South Africa, we meet yet another pilot, Rico Botha, who trains young aspirants at the U-Fly Training Academy in what used to be South Africa’s main international airport, the Rand Airport.

We are with Botha in a flight simulation room, and he fishes out his mobile phone.

He shows us an app on it displaying as many as 10,000 planes criss-crossing the globe in real time.

On the app, they are tiny yellow airplane symbols like colonies of ants. The app makes

it easy for anyone to keep track of the planes traveling in and out of various destinations.

“As air travel is predicted to increase over the next couple of years, we are going to have more planes in that same amount of airspace,” says Botha.

“They predict there will be at least 500,000 pilots over the next 20 years.”

Rico Botha. Photo by Motlabanna Monakgotla

He says there have been significant safety improvements with the arrival of advanced technology.

At the moment, a Boeing 737 is produced 47 times every month catering to a strong worldwide demand. The world’s other leading aircraft manufacturer, Airbus, has been flying the A380 for a decade and is the world’s largest passenger jet.

However, with more planes in the sky, pilot-training has to be undertaken with utmost caution and precision.

“One of the worst things to happen to a pilot is when [he/she] has lost a passenger. Nobody dies on your watch. It’s normally a career-breaker for a lot of people because it was your job to keep them safe…that guilt normally ends a lot of careers,” he says.

With the sky as your daily office, being a pilot may seem like one of the most glamorous jobs on the planet, but it comes with its own baggage of stress.

You can hit air pockets anytime in your career if not alert.

Aside from illnesses, if pilots go through any form of depression or trauma, psychometric tests are done and if they fail, they are deemed unfit to fly.

In 2015, a German co-pilot committed suicide by crashing his aircraft, killing all 144 passengers and crew members in the process. He initiated a deliberate descent until the aircraft impacted a mountain and blew up. Doctors had declared him “unfit to work” but he allegedly concealed that information from his employers.

“Family life is also a very big factor – your wife, your kids. You are going to miss birthdays, you are going to miss Christmas, you are going to miss the birth of your kids. These things do affect pilots and they do tend to become a little depressed at times,” Botha explains.

As for the planes, a thorough inspection must be conducted before take-off.

Botha takes us to one of the planes he uses for training purposes and demonstrates how a simple issue such as water mixing with fuel could cause combustion.

“Because fuel is so dense, you need to make sure there isn’t any water that gets in because water actually sinks in the fuel reserve,” Botha says, showing us a fuel test tube with water.

Both Radebe and Botha praise the level of training they have received.

“The training and level of maintenance in South Africa is one of the greatest in the world,” Radebe says.

Botha agrees, saying a majority of his students are overseas students who choose to study aviation in South Africa as opposed to their own countries.

“Africa is very much on par in terms of technology and also in terms of safety and training with the rest of the world,” says Radebe.

“Technology is changing every single day…

“[Planes are] burning less fuel, [there’s] less carbon emissions and they are much better for the environment…we are [using only] half the fuel we used 10 years ago just to get to Durban from Johannesburg…,” she says.

With an estimated 10,000 planes flying at any given moment, there is a sizeable population of humans up in the air, hopeful technology is on their side and that their pilots are not having a bad day.

 

Sit Back, Relax And Enjoy…?

These business travelers and frequent flyers have encountered some nerve-racking moments.

Claudette Thorne

Country General Manager, Southern Africa for Travelport

Before Travelport, her job entailed traveling to over 22 African countries. There’s one particular flying experience she will never forget.

Working in the mining industry, Thorne, only 22 at the time, boarded a chartered plane from Kinshasa to Lubumbashi in the DRC. It was a 45-minute flight.

“I remember it so clearly. It was a Rolls-Royce – the engine was literally almost held together with duct tape. And then I got on to the plane and that was the time I literally saw nuts and bolts next to me. So yes, petrified wasn’t even the word,” she says.

“I still have so much to accomplish in this life,” says the 37-year-old who finds herself on a plane at least four to eight times a month.

 

Thando Hopa

International model, writer, actress, lawyer

Turbulence while on a plane is Hopa’s worst nightmare.

“I suppose in my own mind it would feel like I should say a prayer because I’m about to die. That’s what I at least thought initially,” she says.

“It’s a resilient discomfort, I have to say,” says the 29-year-old.

Her first overseas flight was to the Sundance Film Festival in the United States. It was 23 hours of flying that Hopa had to endure including transit stops.

Due to albinism, Hopa has problems with her eye sight and requested special assistance.

“When I got there, they gave me a wheelchair and said ‘no, if you want special assistance, you have to sit in the wheelchair’,” Hopa laughs.  “I don’t need the wheelchair, I just need somebody to walk with me; the issues are with my eyes and not my legs,” Hopa told them.

In the end, the South African model, known to sashay down the country’s fashion runways, was pushed through the terminal on a wheelchair. It was an amusing on-ground experience.

If anything were to happen mid-flight, Hopa says her first thoughts would be her immediate family.

 

Brian Dodo

CEO and Founder, MAPP Africa and BmDodo Strategic Design

Resident in Canada, Dodo often travels to South Africa for business and to Zimbabwe, his home country.

There was that one flight he was on overseas that failed to take off.

He was headed to Havana from Montreal, and the passengers waited on the plane for two hours due to some technical issues before take-off.

“They didn’t explain why or give us anything to eat or drink that entire time,” he says. It was stressful not knowing the perceived danger.

As a frequent flyer, Dodo says flying is “taken for granted and the experience is no longer special”.

“I remember when people would clap once the plane has landed. Now, it doesn’t happen… it’s become really commuting more than flight travel,” he says.

 

Fred Eboka

Fashion designer

He has dressed up the rich and famous including tech billionaire Mark Shuttleworth, and the first lady of South Africa, Tshepo Ramaphosa.

His work takes him places, and he says he travels on a plane at least eight times a year.

He recalls a flight he once took from Cape Town to Johannesburg in the midst of a raging thunderstorm.

“We were all looking at each other like ‘what next?’ It was very scary. Suddenly you are feeling your stomach, your heart and your head, and praying!” he says.

The pilot had to turn back.

Eboka is grateful aviation technology has come a long way today.

“We feel a lot safer and we feel like the plane is becoming more and more intelligent,” he says.

Eboka’s philosophy has prepared him for any exigency.

“I plan as if I am going to live forever and I live as if I am going to die tomorrow,” he says.

Featured

Africa Takes to the Stratosphere and Beyond

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The space race is a battle of big minds and miniature satellites. Much remains to be done but outer space could potentially be a trillion-dollar industry that Africa could also cash in on.


Brittany Bull is only 18 years old but can already add ‘space scientist’ to her resume.

She is part of a team building one of South Africa’s first privately-owned nano satellites to launch into space.

“The space industry is about exploration and exploration only happens when you do something nobody else has done before,” says Bull, her face lighting up like the moon.

The teenager grew up in a small, sleepy town called Strandfontein in the Western Cape province of South Africa where starry nights are more the norm than satellites.

But Bull has ambitions for herself and the planet.

She is currently an intern and ambassador for a space program at XinaBox, an Internet of Things (IoT) and electronics development solution focused on coding.

The nanosatellites Bull is working on will be released by a rocket at an altitude of approximately 250km, and will travel to the International Space Station (ISS).

“That’s extreme low earth orbit. That’s the first time a satellite is going to fly in that orbit and it’s the first time a satellite that small is going to fly,” she says.

Brittany Bull. Picture: Supplied

Five nanosatellites “linked together in a thin film of solarpanels” will fit in a box similar to a CubeSat (a miniaturized satellite for space research).

Once ejected from the rocket, the box will open up and the five satellites will unfold with a motherboard and radio attached to them.Their function will be to collect temperature data.

“The main purpose of that is to figure out burn-up temperature and rate upon re-entry into the atmosphere from that altitude,”says Bull.

“No flight has ever taken place at that altitude before so that is going to be the first.”

It will orbit for 14 days before burning up. The data will be transmitted via radio before that happens.

“It is really awe-inspiring and also motivating because I did not let my background stop me. So what’s to say that every other African child can’t make a valuable contribution and if every other African child is given the opportunity, we would progress so fast…,” she says, smiling.

Bull always dreamed of taking the leap into the space industry but never knew what career path would take her there.

She had wanted to study nursing like many other girls her age in her community but in 2015, when a group of female engineers and astrophysicists came to teach students about STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), she started realizing her dream, slowly but surely.

The following year, she joined Space Trek, a space science camp in Cape Town offered by Morehead State University in Kentucky, United States(US).

It was a STEM program aimed at empowering young girls. She then applied to their space science and engineering degree program and was accepted on a part-scholarship basis.

Bull is currently raising funds for her stint at Morehead State University and plans to start next year.

Once she is done with her studies, she hopes to return home to make an impact in South Africa’s emerging space industry.

“My dream is to bring that expertise back to South Africa and help make SANSA [South African National Space Agency] just as great,” she says.

“I feel my biggest contribution would be here.”

Onwards and upwards

South Africa has sent three satellites to space. The first was a miniature satellite launched in the US in 1999, built by post-graduate students at Stellenbosch University in the Western Cape.

The second South African satellite was launched into spaceby a Russian Soyuz rocket at Baikonur in 2009. It was called the Sumbandila satellite.

“It is a Venda [South African] name for path-finder,” says Nomfuneko Majaja, the Chief Director: Legal & Compliance, SEZs and Space Affairs at the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).

Majaja is the former member of the Ad hoc Committee for the review of the Space Affairs Act No. 84 of 1993.

The review is important to ensure that the SA legislation is abreast of the national and international developments.

Majaja also serves as the vice Chairperson of the South African Council for Space Affairs; which is a regulatory body for all space related matters in the country.

She has experience in national economic policy development and strategy processes and specifically in aerospace, outer space and electro-technical sectors.

Majaja says the space industry is not as big compared to other industries in South Africa, and is trying to change that by interacting with various stakeholders involved in the country’s space economy.

But she says there is growing interest in the Space arena in the country.

In 2013, South Africa launched its third satellite, developed by Masters Students from the Cape Peninsula University of Technology
in the Western Cape province.

It was South Africa’s first cube satellite known as TshepisoSat (Code name ZA-CUBE1).

“In conjunction with developing small satellites, there’s now a big move to developing CubeSats,” says Majaja.

Nomfuneko Majaja. Picture: Supplied

A cube satellite is a miniaturized satellite made up of multiples of 10cm×10cm×10cm cubic units. Satellites are getting smaller, smaller, and still smaller.

Euroconsult, a global independent consulting and analyst firm specializing in satellite-enabled vertical markets, predicts that about 7,000 small satellites will be launched, at an average of 580 per year by 2022 and growing to an average of 820 per year by 2027.

“You can put a satellite in your hand, that’s how small it is,” adds Majaja.

Bull is also working on a project with XinaBox to create an even smaller satellite called the XSat.

“It could fit into an iPhone 7 Plus. It is that tiny,” she says.

“We have an array of sensors for infra-red sensing, ultraviolet light sensing, carbon emissions…”

It will also have GPS sensors.

South Africa is currently working on launching the next CubeSat in December 2018 on a Russian launcher.

One of the ambitious projects many are looking forward to in the country is the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), an international effort to build the world’s largest radio telescope, with a square kilometer (one million square meters) of collecting area.

According to its website, it will deploy thousands of radio telescopes, in three unique configurations, and enable astronomers to monitor the sky in unprecedented detail thousands of times faster than any system currently in existence.

“The South African MeerKAT radio telescope is a precursor to the Square Kilometre Array telescope and will be integrated into the mid-frequency component of SKA Phase 1,” says its website.

More than 500 international astronomers and 58 from Africa have submitted proposals to work with MeerKAT once it’s completed.

“The space industry in Africa is really going to change completely, because of things like the Square Kilometre Array and MeerKAT and the fact that there are a lot of space-tech companies in Africa and African governments doing satellites,” says Bull.

“Soon, we might have a space agency on the continent that could rival NASA in terms of research, because we are strategically placed fora lot of research that the people in the US can’t do.

“The space industry is going to move and it is going to change and if we have enough people who are passionate enough about it, then we might just be at the helm of the ship.”

Using space technology to resolve Africa’s problems

Thousands of kilometers away from South Africa, 24-year-old Oniosun Temidayo has made it his life’s mission to make Africa the next frontier of the space industry.

Temidayo grew up in a family of five children in Oyo State in the southwest of Nigeria, but always aspired to go to space. There were no opportunities to study aerospace engineering or astronomy so he studied meteorology instead, but space is his first love, and he has been involved in the industry for the last six years.

“The good thing about investing in the space industry is that it helps you solve major societal problems. Space technologies can go along way in actually helping us solve issues like agriculture or security,” he tells FORBES AFRICA.

When he was 18, he established a space club at his university with over 200 members. He was also involved in the university’s center for space research.

In 2017, he was part of the group that created Nigeria’s first nanosatellite in conjunction with the Japanese Birds-1 program, a collaborative effort between the Federal University of Technology, Akure(FUTA), and the National Space Research and Development Agency.

It involved five countries, namely Bangladesh, Japan, Mongolia, Ghana and Nigeria. Temidayo worked on the grand station development.

The project’s aim was to equip the future generation of students to create their own satellites.

Post his studies, Temidayo joined the Space Generation Advisory Council, a global organization aiming to bring the views of young space professionals to the United Nations.

There, he became the African regional coordinator driving the development of space and promoting STEM.

In 2017, they hosted an African region space generation workshop, a gathering of young space professionals in Africa with 15 countries in attendance.

Early 2018, the young entrepreneur founded a company called Space in Africa, a platform that covers the business, technology, discoveries, events and political news around the African space and satellite industry.

His goal was to put out African-related information about the industry that he found lacking.

“In Africa, we believe it’s actually time to get involved in the space industry. But we realized this is not going to happen if there is no adequate information on the industry,” he says.

He was the only African listed under the 24 Under 24 Leaders and Innovators in STEAM and Space Awards given away by The Mars Generation (anon-profit with boards of leaders from the space industry) early 2018. The list awards young people driving STEM and space globally.


Oniosun Temidayo. Picture: Supplied

In August, he also made it to the 35 Under 35 in the space industry ranking by the International Institute of Space Commerce (established at the Isle of Man). He was one of two Africans on the list.

Despite the lack of resources Nigeria has in space technology, Temidayo says space technology can help in a much bigger way.

“I remember when the Chibok girls went missing in Nigeria,that’s actually a scenario where space technologies could have been capitalized on. At some point, we were using satellite technologies to track them,” he says.

Temidayo emphasizes on technology.

“The argument shouldn’t be ‘should we invest in space’? Yes,we should invest in space. At the same time, we should have policies that enable us to actually make use of these technologies to solve our problems.”

Africa’s outer space strategy

Despite the many challenges Africa faces, experts say it should not shy away from the space race and many countries on the continent plan to make their name in the sector.

There are currently 13 space agencies listed in Africa and 28 satellites have been launched by African countries (owned by Egypt, Algeria,Angola, Morocco, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa and Kenya).

According to the Business and Market Analysis of the African Space Industry done by Space in Africa, over $3 billion has been spent on space projects in Africa since the launch of NILESAT 101 by Egypt in 1998.

“Over 40% of the satellites launched in Africa were launched over the last two years,” Temidayo says.

“This means that in the past two years, African countries have been investing more in space technologies than they were 10 years back.”

Temidayo expects the trend to continue.

“By the end of this year [2018], four more satellites will be launched by African countries.”

Kenya launched a satellite too in 2018.

Charles Mwangi was involved in the development of Kenya’s first space object christened 1st Kenya University Nano-Satellite (1KUNS-PF),also a 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cube satellite.

“Kenya is a space-fearing nation,” he says. “Meaning, we have a space object out there; we have joined the space race.”

He is currently the assistant country coordinator for Kenya Space Agency and is pursuing a second master’s degree in the field of space development.

He wants to be a force in the Kenyan space industry and says instead of going to space, his dream is to inspire young people here on earth.

“I want to make an impact so that kids can dream about space as a career,” he says.

He hopes Kenya will be able to maximize the full benefits of the space industry.

“If satellites can be designed, assembled and tested in Kenya, if we can do that, then we can say we are making progress.”

According to the African Union (AU) Agenda 2063, one of the aspirations is to develop the African Outer Space Strategy with plans to establish an African space agency.

In 2017, a framework was developed by the AU on how to fund the agency, draft its goals, benefits and legalities.

“African countries are investing more in space now more than ever, and the trend is actually going way up. We expect it to remain like that,” Bull from South Africa agrees.

“The perception of space is changing; it’s not something for geeks anymore, it’s not something unheard of. A lot of people are starting to take it seriously and they are also starting to be interested in it,” she says.

“So that means there’s going to be more people going into the space industry and contributing, which means we will make progress faster.”

“Seeing that space has a strategic place in enabling the economy, we believe that the government should do that,” Majaja concurs.

This will help governments in strategic planning with the data they receive from satellites.

She says satellites can assist with weather, ocean and border monitoring and management.

“There is room for us to manufacture our own satellites and be able to distribute data,” she says. However, there are big challenges a head for the continent.

“Most African countries cannot afford to spend on space technologies,” Temidayo says. In addition, he says there aren’t enough educational programs in Africa that support space study.

 “African countries have relied on countries like China to build their space technologies,” he says.

“If we want to grow our space industry, we need to start grooming the people who are going to be building the space agencies.”

Training more people in the space industry and STEM is important.

Temidayo says the African space industry is only $3 billion of the $400 billion globally. And Nigeria and South Africa have been leading in this space.

While other global countries are planning their next trips to Mars and other planets, Africa still has a long way to go.

“Africa cannot think like that. We have a lot of problems to solve so let’s use space technologies to solve our problems. I don’t think Africa should get involved in such missions. Let’s use space tech to solve our problems first,” says Temidayo.

He adds that more Africans are traveling to developed countries to learn about the space industry and returning to contribute towards it in Africa.

“With the rate at which we are growing, I think the future is bright… My goal is to actually see a booming space industry in Africa,” he says.

“I want to see the first commercial space unicorn in Africa. If I see that, I’m going to be super happy.”

He believes that although Africa may not currently be at the forefront of the space race, more local businesses and startups should be involved.

Global players in another realm

Space is a dark, airless vacuum, full of radiation and unknown microorganisms.

But for some companies, this vacuum can throw up big business possibilities.

Since the mid-20th century, during the cold war, space exploration has seen stiff competition.

Now, it has become easier and less costly to fly to space or send satellites to space.

According to the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) 2017 annual report, there are approximately 4,600 satellites in the earth’s orbit.

A Celestis capsule attached to a rocket. Picture: Supplied

In 2017 alone, there were 553 satellites and other space objects registered.

These were a combination of privately-owned and government objects. This is an increase of 8.91% compared to satellites registered in 2016. The countries with the most satellites in space are Russia, the UnitedStates, China, Japan, France and India.

This shows a rising interest in space exploration as scientists keep developing more economical space rockets.

At the moment, Space X is one of the most notable companies making an impact in the space industry.

The big American corporate founded by South Africa-born techpreneur, Elon Musk, is known for designing, manufacturing and launching advanced rockets and spacecraft.

In 2012, it became the first privately-owned company to send a spacecraft, known as Dragon, to the ISS to deliver cargo and return to earth.

Since then, there has been an increase in the number of private players looking to the stars.

Investment bank Morgan Stanley estimates that the global space industry could generate revenue of $1.1 trillion or more by 2040, up from$350 billion.

Apart from the exploration of intelligent life forms, investors are looking for out-of-the-world profits.

Billionaire Richard Branson is in the space race and his company Virgin Galactic is hoping to put people in space soon.

“One of our biggest investments has been the space companies, which we have already invested $1 billion to set up,” he says in FORBES’ 100th anniversary issue in 2017.

Ashes among the stars 

One other company invested in the space industry is the Houston-based Celestis. If anything, it has transformed the way memorials are done.

The company has been launching the ashes of loved ones into space since 1997.

It garnered global attention when it dispatched a symbolic portion of the cremated remains of Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry, 1960sicon Timothy Leary, and 22 other participants into earth’s orbit aboard a Pegasus rocket.

Charles Chafer, the CEO of Celestis, co-founded the business in 1994.

“Our job was to put together two of the most conservative industries out there, the space industry and the funeral industry,” he tellsFORBES AFRICA.

Since then, they have been dominating the memorial space industry and have not looked back.

Charles Chafer. Picture: Supplied

The ashes are kept in a capsule and transported into space via rockets traveling there.

The company offers services to launch the capsule into space in a zero gravity environment and then return it to earth.

Another service includes launching the capsule into orbit where it remains until it re-enters the atmosphere.

Lastly, the capsule can also be launched to permanently remain on the moon.

Each capsule has a tracker and transmits the data of its location.

In 2019, the company plans to launch a voyager service that will send the spacecraft carrying the capsules on a permanent journey through space.

Chafer says the space industry offers many avenues for growth.

“We have an opportunity to extend our civilization at large throughout the solar system,” he says.

“I see it as an opportunity that’s not just economic and cultural, but a human opportunity… It’s pretty simple because I think  we are starting to see that you cannot have unlimited growth of any kind in a finite system and earth is a finite system,” he says.

The company has seen vertical growth.

“We have basically doubled our revenues every year for the last three years,” says Chafer.

But there is no guarantee every startup will be successful, he adds.

“The great thing about having different companies is that there will be a lot of good ideas. But by no means will all of them make it…You need a lot for some of the best ones to emerge and become part of that economy.”

Chafer believes his business is here to stay,  and in the future, he would like his own remains to be sent off to the depths of space.


Rocket launch at Celestis. Picture: Supplied
The risks at zero gravity

Meir Moalem, a former fighter pilot from Israel, is the CEO and co-founder of Sky and Space Global ltd.

Growing up, Moalem was a space geek.

“I always considered myself a space junkie. I loved astronomy and read all the science fiction books. So it was very clear to me that when I’d come of age, I would do something that involves physics, astronomy, space or something like that,” he says.

Instead, he found himself becoming a jet pilot in the Israeli air force and spent 25 years there. That’s also when he decided to acquire a degree in physics and get involved in Israel’s space industry.

When he graduated, he became the manager of an Israeli project that sent an astronaut to space.

In 2003, a friend, Ilan Ramon, was part of a seven-crew member trip to space on board the space shuttle Columbia. He was Israel’s first astronaut.

However, the two-week mission ended in tragedy as the shuttle was destroyed 16 minutes before it landed on earth. All seven crew members died.

“It was also a reminder about how dangerous space is. It is exciting, it is sexy, it invigorates the imagination, it has a huge value but it is also a risky business,” Moalem tells FORBES AFRICA.

A quick Google search reveals that there have been 30 recorded fatalities resulting from space flights or testing.

“When people are not involved and when a satellite explodes on a launchpad, we tend to think it’s only money, but although lives are notlost, it is not only money.

“It’s people who have invested years of their lives in a mission and were looking forward to see the success of their work being put into that, but it is a risky business,” he says.

NASA and Space.com estimate the average space shuttle mission costs between $450 million and $1.6 billion.

According to Business Insider, one of the most expensive failed space missions lost $424 million.

This was a NASA launch in 2011.

The satellite was meant to track the earth’s climate but encountered problems when the rocket’s nose cone failed to separate.

In developing countries that depend on internationally-owned satellites, that loss also has an impact, says Majaja.

“Imagine just one day, a satellite is switched off and you are unable to do a transaction you want with your financial institution.

Meir Moalem. Picture: Supplied

“Imagine all of us in South Africa… our lives will come to an end, the company’s lives will come to an end, these economies will come to a standstill,” she says.

The failure of satellites can have an enormous ripple effect on the whole world.

Moalem says it is a very difficult and complex business but it’s also about innovation.

Despite the major risks involved, his company launched its first satellite in June 2017.

Now, it’s planning to launch 200 nanosatellites into orbit in 2019.

“Up until now, when you are working on a commercial space application, it is extremely expensive and you are working for years and years and you have a satellite that costs $200 million or $300 million or a rocket that costs $100 million and God forbid something happens, and you lose years and years of effort,” he says.

Moalem is planning to change the risk factors involved in space projects.

“We are actually transforming that and creating a reliable ecosystem,” he says.

Instead of launching the 200 satellites at one go, they are launching 20 to 25 satellites every three months so that if something inadvertent were to happen, it would have less of an impact on the business or overall program.

 “What we are doing is completely disruptive and it has transformed the capital structure in the space business,” he says.

“You don’t need hundreds and hundreds of millions of dollars to build a commercial space company. You can do with a lot less and still provide very good services and very good capabilities to your customers.

“We are changing the way we are thinking about it and making the space business or space endeavours more reliable, more trust-worthy,” he adds.

He says it is becoming cheaper and the trust factor is in place now because you can contain the risk.

Moalem’s business has been able to raise $35 million on the Australian stock exchange.

Through the 200 nanosatellites, he hopes to improve mobile communication coverage globally by offering a service to internet of things services and data service providers for faster and efficient communication.

No doubt there have been huge leaps in the journeys to space with advancements in communication and technology.

This has also been fueled by entrepreneurship and innovation.

Outer space has become a level playing field, and Africa is ready to lift-off.

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The Sub City: What Lies Beneath Johannesburg

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What secrets does a city hold within its bosom? In Johannesburg, one of them is an intriguing
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Beyond the plumes of smoke the weed economy on a high

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In September, South Africa became the third country on the continent to pass a ruling favoring cannabis. Last month, Canada fully legalized its use. The world of business and medicine is slowly awakening to its benefits, weeding fact from fiction.

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