April 15, 2019 will hopefully mark the day a new phrase enters popular discourse about how our economic futures could play out. The term “4th Industrial Revolution” has come to embody the conversation around the supply-side of the jobs debate -skills and education.
We hope to drive new research, discussion and policy around the demand-side of employment by deeply exploring entrepreneurship as a career – particularly for students of high potential.
What if skilled students with options chose an entrepreneurship path and hired their friends and peers along the way? What does Africa’s youth employment situation look like if this happens?
The Anzisha Scenario campaign concept was born after heated discussions and exchanges internally in response to a research paper that was released in 2018, and the resulting coverage it got in the media. The research took a position that older founders in the US have been more successful as entrepreneurs generally, and, particularly, when it comes to scale and job creation. The ensuing media and social media coverage seemed to quickly extrapolate this to an insight that applied globally. Emails quickly circulated across the entrepreneurship and education ecosystems, echoing the sentiments of the research and its impact for programming.
I had a particularly strong reaction to the report. It’s not that the research is wrong (it isn’t), it’s that it:
- Is pretty obvious. Prior work, life and management experience should make you a better entrepreneur when you’re older, in the same way it should make you a more successful manager or leader within an existing business.
- Inadvertently positions the problem of youth unemployment as largely unsolvable by young people themselves. But with not enough job opportunities to start with, if only people with 15+ years’ experience can create other jobs, we’re in a heap of trouble.
- Is quickly supported by those who have followed traditional education and career pathways, crowding out other experience pathways as less legitimate. Anyone who got a great degree, and then worked for a great company, is immediately validated and pre-qualified as a better scale entrepreneur through formal training. Few have that opportunity.
Having had this research kick off some of our own thinking, we started to look at our own evidence and work. And this then became the next driver of investing in a campaign as a pan-African, inclusive, multi-stakeholder scenario planning exercise.
We have seen, time and again, young entrepreneurs start out from the very youngest of ages, and slowly build careers –in the same way any other career professional would. Those that are well supported throughout tend to be more successful, just as a well-supported professional would be on their path to senior management. We will be presenting these stories in a Hall of Fame campaign later in the year.
We also have seen clear evidence that managers hire from their peer group in terms of age. Older entrepreneurs hire older professionals. Young entrepreneurs hire young. The only people really willing to hire 19 year olds without question are 23 year old entrepreneurs (or thereabouts).
We have seen young people of high potential and with options – they are actively recruited by universities and employers – choose entrepreneurship.
The combination of this and many other thoughts is part of the discussion we want to have. Is the Anzisha Scenario possible? What are the drivers, barriers and opportunities? What are the roles of parents, teachers, students, policy-makers and other stakeholders in making the choice of “entrepreneurship as a career” desirable and supported, with appropriate income as you grow? The Anzisha Scenario as a conversation on campus has already begun to influence our own curriculum planning as our faculty think about their role in promoting and supporting entrepreneurship as a career path.
We’ve already had two stakeholder workshops with cross-sector representatives from South Africa, Mauritius, Egypt, Rwanda, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Botswana. (Thanks to ALA, ALU, ALX, Harambee, Allan Gray Orbis Foundation, Driven Entrepreneurs, E-squared, Imagine Scholar, McKinsey, Nova Pioneer, RLabs, and Startup Academy).
On April 15, during the inaugural Very Young Entrepreneur Education and Acceleration Summit, we’ll host our first experts’ panel and launch the draft position paper. Please follow or contribute to the conversation using the hashtag #AnzishaScenario. Make sure to also watch highlights from the Summit at anzisha.org/summit. Let’s see if we as a community can put young people at the center of solving the employment challenges we collectively face.
– Josh Adler
Mauritius-Africa, a partnership for shared prosperity
By: Mathieu Mandeng
In the current complex and challenging circumstances that are testing the resilience of our economies and its foundations, I believe Mauritius remains in a unique position to create a partnership for shared prosperity with African countries. Mauritius is leveraging its unique selling proposition of being the only investment grade international financial centre “ IFC” in sub Saharan Africa to drive trade and investment in mainland Africa.
An IFC is fundamentally a response to the complexity, inefficiency and hardship of doing business in mainland by leveraging the five factors of competitiveness that are business environment, financial sector development, infrastructure, human capital and reputation. A quick health check shows that Mauritius that now ranks 13th globally in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business is a conducive jurisdiction that upholds the rule of law with the UK Privy Council as the ultimate court of appeal. Mauritius has a high transparency index, the 3rd in Africa and ranks number one in the Mo Ibrahim Index of good governance. The Financial Services sector is well developed and highly regulated while allowing free flow of capital; total bank assets as a percentage of GDP is more than 300% and banking penetration rate is 90%. The infrastructure that includes digital, transport and energy is world class and keeps developing with the recent construction of the light metro. Human capital is highly skilled and bilingual, able to serve both anglophone and francophone Africa. The country is therefore playing on its key strengths as a centre of excellence, leveraging its solid regulatory and legal framework as well as its reputation to provide a unified platform to direct investments into key projects that can relaunch the Continent’s fragilized economies.
The country developed itself by creating markets outside of its insularity, diversifying its economic model from a monocrop economy, the sugar industry, back in 1968 with a GDP per capita of around USD 200 to a high-income country with a GNI per capita of USD 12,740 in 2019 for a threshold of USD 12,535, according to the World Bank report released on July 1st, 2020. The industrialization process in the 70s and 80s and the rapid growth of the hospitality industry in the 80s and 90s, the development of financial services in the 90s and ICT and professional services more recently, have all contributed to its success. Today the sugar industry only represents 2% of the GDP compared to financial services, that is nearing 13% of GDP, aiming at doubling its contribution within the next ten years.
The Mauritian global business sector has been a key contributor to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows in India over the past fifteen years backed by solid bilateral relationship and investment agreements. India received more than USD 300 billion in terms of FDI, a third of which went through Mauritius, contributing directly and indirectly to India’s economic and industrial development. With financial flows come also the invisible flows such as expertise, technology, know-how, training, etc. The renegotiation of the bilateral agreements a few years back offered Mauritius the opportunity to reinvent its model that was too heavily reliant on India. The country is now looking towards mainland Africa to migrate best practice, building on its experience to channel funds, skills and expertise. With a high literacy rate and a number of talents that are bilingual, Mauritius can export its human resources to contribute to the development of sectors such as financial services on the Continent. Tourism and Sugar are the other mature industries that have generated a number of talents with the depth and expertise that can help these sectors develop in Africa.
A concrete example to illustrate how Mauritius is driving this agenda, is the creation of the Mauritius Africa Fund in 2014 worth Rs 500 million (USD13m), to develop “Special Economic Zones”, with pioneering countries that include Ivory Coast, Senegal, Ghana and Madagascar. In doing so, Mauritius is asserting its ability to manage the risks associated with issues related to lack of good governance, conducive business environment, poor infrastructure and lack of regional integration that are key challenges when investing into the Continent. Mauritius is taking advantage of its share of development in Africa, where the growth is driven by the three “Cs” that are “commodities”, “consumption” and “corridors”. And the latter is a powerful lever as we are describing here the emerging corridors, that are facilitating trade and investment coming from Asia, Turkey and Brazil. As for the first corridor, Mauritius, through its agreements with India, in the case of the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation and Partnership Agreement (CECPA), and China, with the FTA (Free Trade Agreement), but also the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) has a fundamental role to play in facilitating trade and investment between Asia and Africa, and within Africa. These avenues of collaboration and growth can help both Mauritius and mainland Africa navigate the aftermath of this pandemic resiliently.
With its unique selling proposition of being the only global bank bullish on the African with a presence of more than 18 years in Mauritius, Standard Chartered is leveraging its unique coverage of the Continent and its global products suit to deliver high value-added solutions to network clients. The case in point is the Regional Treasury Centre (RTC) value proposition that provides solutions for liquidity management, procurement and shared service centres to clients managing their regional operations out of their regional office in Mauritius.
As Africa embarks on its own industrialization journey to create value derived from the abundance of minerals and other resources, it would be beneficial for the Continent to engage in diversifying its economies. The current crisis offers an opportunity to accelerate this key agenda for its sustainable development. Mauritius can play a strategic and catalytic role in this process by creating the right conditions for investors to access the opportunities that arise. While the unprecedent COVID-19 crisis has heavily disturbed the global value chains and presents real challenges to African nations that need to balance the act of preserving the health of populations and relaunching their economic development, this is the right opportunity for them to cast away the overdependence on commodities’ exportations and overreliance on imported manufactured products by diversifying their economies. And Mauritius is uniquely placed to develop win-win solutions in a partnership for shared prosperity with mainland Africa by leveraging its experience and key differentiating capabilities.
THE FUTURE JUST ARRIVED: THE ROLE OF BANKS IN A POST-COVID WORLD
THE COVID-19 GLOBAL pandemic has brought forward the future. It has brought about humanity’s biggest challenge in a century, to choose between life and livelihoods. In the immediate aftermath of the pandemic, banks have played a supporting role to clients and communities. Standard Chartered announced a commitment of US$1 billion globally to support companies in the health delivery supply chain to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, and an additional US$50 million to assist communities in presence markets, especially Africa.
Generally, banks have entered the COVID crisis much stronger and resilient than they did before the global ﬁnancial crisis of 2008. This resilience is owed in part to the raft of regulatory reforms and stronger supervision since 2008, aimed at ensuring adequate capital and liquidity buffers against market-wide stress and also to avoid future taxpayer bailouts. Bank resilience notwithstanding, there is a catch! Well, several!
Many jurisdictions have placed ﬁghting this pandemic at par with war by employing emergency measures and massive ﬁscal stimulus packages to provide relief to businesses and households and hopefully to bring the public health crisis under control. Relative to Q1 2020, total lockdown is now perceived as a blunt instrument in responding to the pandemic due to its potential for economic destruction and jeopardizing livelihoods. There is some convergence of views towards recalibrating easing of lockdown alongside placing high emphasis on both corporate and individual responsibility to obey public health recommendations and to observe good hygiene.
As the world emerges from lockdown, the nature and shape of the recovery is an important variable. Whether the recovery is a V-shape, U-shape or a W- shape makes a world of a difference to how banks will respond. We are only beginning to understand and measure the true economic cost of the pandemic, transmitted through lockdown and the deleterious effects on growth and the viability of some sectors. Many companies around the world face the grim prospect of possible collapse, necessitating tough survival decisions on rationalizations, write-downs of asset values and other corporate actions.
National governments need to determine the right balance between restarting economic activity and growth without compromising the capacity of healthcare infrastructure. The ability to do so would in turn inﬂuence the nature and shape of the recovery as well as which companies or sectors can survive the new reality, and which would fail. Then there is digitization. Digitization and the new ways of working will deﬁne who stays competitive, productive and can survive. Almost every sector or industry and even governments will need to invest in digital solutions to future-proof their survival and relevance.
While banks certainly have a critical role to play during and post crisis, the reality is there is no certainty or clarity on how events might unfold. In the meantime, a better understanding of the nature, virulence and measures to conquer the invisible enemy remains elusive, thereby drawing parallels with the expression “fog of war”. The unfolding challenges and after-effects of the pandemic are not sequential or in any particular order. Neither will the responses be. Responses need to be diligent, intelligent and wise in order to safeguard the future. The pre-COVID bank resilience is a necessary and comforting condition but insufficient for post-COVID recovery unless banks themselves can successfully navigate the fog of this new war to avoid joining the casualty list that is beginning to grow around the world. They will certainly be dealing with elevated credit risk, strains to capital and liquidity and heightened operational and cyber security risk, among others. Livelihoods and economic security look fragile in the short run as the pandemic exposes cracks, ﬁssures and chasms in the existing socio-economic order globally. This systemic stress could precipitate a repurposing of legacy political, economic, social and security arrangements by national governments which could be consequential to businesses recovery and viability, household incomes and social cohesion. For the banks, it becomes a waiting game!
The Secret Formula For Changing Lives In Africa
When Covid-19 struck, Coca-Cola, which has dominated FORBES’ lists as one of the world’s most valuable brands and innovative companies, deployed its resources and leveraged its distribution networks to make a difference in Africa’s economies and communities. Here’s how they did it.
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